3) Stem cell transplantation
Stem cell transplantation is considered a feasible option in many conditions involving the bone marrow both cancerous and non-cancerous. It has 2 main types which are autologous and allogenic stem cell transplantation. In the autologous type, stem cells are harvested from the same patient after a dose of chemotherapy to ensure that they are as free as possible from cancer cells, while in the allogenic type, cells are harvested from donor, preferably first degree relatives of the patient.
The bone marrow may need to be ablated before infusing the bone marrow, and this is usually done via high doses of chemotherapy, following transplantation, we may also need to administer a dose of chemotherapy to eliminate any remaining cancer cells. Bone marrow transplantation especially of the allogenic type carries the risk of rejection because of the difference in the genetic composition between the transfused bone marrow and cells of the recipient body. This condition is called graft-versus-host-disease and can be life-threatening in many cases.