What causes easy bruising?
Causes of easy bruising are diverse, and the best way to categorize them is to classify them according to the dysfunctional mechanism that eventually led to their development and/or persistence:
• Platelet disorders
Blood platelets “clog” and temporarily patch small defects of any vessel wall after trauma, so they are responsible for the initial cessation of bleeding. They also function to activate the coagulation pathway, which eventually leads to the healing of the defect. Platelet disorders can either be a problem of quantity or quality:
- Thrombocytopenia: Thrombocytopenia is a general medical term that indicates a decrease of platelet count, they can be as a reaction to infections, a side effect of some drugs or due to failure of the bone marrow to produce enough platelets, thrombocytopenia can also be due to an enlarged spleen, a condition known as hypersplenism. In young females, the presence of thrombocytopenia may necessitate looking for autoimmune diseases as systemic lupus, especially if it is associated with fertility problems or pregnancy complications. If thrombocytopenia cannot be attributed to a cause, it is diagnosed as immune thrombocytopenic purpura, which is an immune-mediated disease where the body produces antibodies that destroy and prevent the formation of new platelets, it develops after acute viral infection in most cases.
- Thrombasthenia: Thrombasthenia means “weak” platelets, which is an umbrella of disorders that have a normal platelet count but decreased function. They may be hereditary as Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia or may result as a desired or an undesired effect of a drug, the best example here is Aspirin.