Types of a bone marrow transplant
There are 2 main types of stem cell transplant:
- Autologous: In this scenario, the cells that are transplanted are collected from the same person. This may seem odd, but the collection usually follows chemotherapy as in cases of blood cancers. Then, the bone marrow is ablated and the collected cells are transfused.
- Allogenic stem cell transplantation: In this case, the transplanted stem cell comes from another person who usually has very similar surface proteins on their cells called antigens. The ideal person for such a procedure is a sibling. A subtype of allogeneic stem cell transplant is a syngeneic stem cell transplant when an identical twin is the donor. Identical twins have virtually the same genetic composition with very minor differences making them the best donor with virtually no risk of immune reactions in transplanted organs.