Autologous and Allogeneic Transplant | Stem Cell Transplant

The bone marrow transplant procedure

Bone marrow donation

Bone marrow transplantation involves the following steps:

1. Finding a suitable donor:

The bone marrow is an organ and any organ that is transplanted carries the risk of rejection. But consider this: When an organ is rejected, it is the immunity of the body that refuses its presence and considers it a foreigner, but what if the immunity itself is transplanted and considers the whole body a foreigner? This is the case in bone marrow transplantation, and that’s why many tests are carried out to ensure the suitability of the donor. The perfect donor is always the same person or an identical twin, followed by a first-degree relative. You will likely hear the term “HLA matching”. This term is short for Human Leukocytic Antigen, and this is a system by which the body identifies its own cells, much like an ID system identifiable by cells of the same body, and through HLA typing, we make sure that the body has a greater probability of accepting the marrow of the donor since it looks like its own.

It is also necessary to make sure that the donor is free of infections and malignancies at the time of donation. Any infection transmission can prove fatal to the recipient. The donor is usually carefully examined and a full medical and surgical history is taken. Basic laboratory investigations are carried out including blood count, kidney and liver functions and blood grouping, a chest x-ray may be ordered especially in smokers.